It is most likely to be logical failure If
If you are still able to read from or write to the disk drive
Data loss such as deletion of data, virus attack, reformat of disk etc
Sometimes it could be a combination of logical and hardware failure. For instance, the disk has developed bad sectors or partially failing read-write heads and the operating system is unable to read the file system info to start up correctly.
How to identify logical and hardware failure easily in layman term ?
It is most likely to be hardware failure If
The disk emits strange clicking, grinding or knocking sound
Quiet and no activity on powering up
Computer BIOS setup unable to detect the disk identity with correct model and size
Hardware failures are generally caused by impact, power surge, fire/water damage or simply end of life of product. Hard disk failure is not a matter of if it will happen, but when it will happen so prevention is better than cure.
Is it easier to recover data from disk with logical rather than hardware-induced failure?
Not necessarily. In the case of corrupted data volume with encryption, reinstallation of operating system, some data may be lost permanently. It may involve the tedious process of file system fixing, data retrieval and file repair on a case by case situation.